Prof. Philippe Baveye

Philippe BaveyeChair Ecosystem Modelling
Director of SIMBIOS

T: +44 (0)1382 308646

In a parallel life, when he is not actively leading the team at SIMBIOS, Professor Baveye also is the Kodak Professor of Environmental Engineering at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. His research program there revolves around the bioclogging of soils and membranes, and is intimately connected with the work done at Abertay

General Information

My main research interests are:

1. Bioclogging of natural porous media and filters, and consequences for engineering practice “Bioclogging” corresponds to the obstruction of pores in natural or artificial porous media, leading to often drastic reductions in their permeability. In membranes and filters used for water treatment, the same process is often referred to as “biofouling”. Bioclogging is of great practical significance in a range of engineering contexts (from the in-situ bioremediation of aquifers, to artificial groundwater recharge, to riverbank filtration, to groundwater or wastewater treatment using sang filters or membranes). In some cases, the effects of bioclogging are negative (e.g., increased pumping costs in in-situ bioremediation strategies), whereas they can be positive in other situations (e.g., in the establishment of biobarriers to contain pollutants; bioclogging in sediments of artifical hillside water reservoirs or earthen dams). Over the last 20 years, graduate students and postdocs in my group have attempted to identify the mechanisms by which microorganisms (particularly bacteria, but also fungi, in the presence or absence of predators) affect the hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity of porous media. Our work has traditionally involved small-scale laboratory systems, in order to permit us to study bioclogging mechanisms with great detail and accuracy. This line of research will continue, in particular as we take advantage of the phenomenal advances made in the last few years in terms of the physical and microbiological characterization of porous media at the microscopic scale. However, in parallel with this microscale analysis, we are currently also extending our approach to intermediate-scale laboratory and field experiments. The goal there is to help practitioners characterize the types of (bio)clogging they are confronted with in their specific applications. Accurate monitoring of bioclogging under field conditions remains extremely challenging at this point and needs to be improved. A separate component of our research will also deal with the effect of bioclogging (at any intensity level) could have on the transport of contaminants. Work initiated in my laboratory (with S. Qureshi and A.R. Jacobson, see list of publications) has shown that microorganisms can play a crucial role, in some cases, in the release of organic or inorganic contaminants from sorbed phases and in their transport in subsurface environments. For example, bacteria can cause the solubilization of soil organic matter, and the soluble by-products can lead to the facilitated transport of organic xenobiotics (pesticides) and in some cases, of heavy metals. This process needs to be studied much more than it has so far, because it might significantly affect a number of engineering solutions currently adopted to reclaim contaminated sediments or to design barriers to contaminant propagation. Of particular interest in that general context is the influence that climatic change (increased temperature and CO2 levels) may have on microbially-facilitated transport of these compounds in surface soils.

2. Environmental fate of nanoparticles and facilitated transport of pollutants There is a lot of concern at this point about the environmental fate of engineered nanoparticles. One of my graduate students, when I was still at Cornell, did some very interesting work on the aggregation kinetics of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (see reference 111 in the list of peer-reviewed journal articles above). This work shows that the TiO2 nanoparticles, when placed under conditions of pH and ionic strength resembling those that they are likely to encounter in natural environments (in particular in soils), aggregate very rapidly, in a matter of minutes, to form micron-sized or even bigger clumps. Other researchers have recently found similar results. These observations should have significant relevance to the transport of TiO2 nanoparticles in natural porous media, e.g., soils or aquifer materials, since 5 nm TiO2 nanoparticles are expected to behave very differently in the interstices in soils or aquifer materials, than 2 or 3 micron size aggregates of particles. The latter may propagate in soils more like Cryptosporidium oocysts (which we have also investigated, with Dr. Christophe Darnault). To determine the effect of the aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles on their transport in natural porous media, we are planning to carry out a series of laboratory and field experiments (in especially-designed lysimeters), followed by careful analysis of where the TiO2 nanoparticles are located in the columns or soil profiles. Part of the research will also involve the development and testing of a mathematical model of the transport of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles.

3. Emergence of microscopic spatial complexity in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems This heading coincides with the title of a manuscript I sent recently for publication in Science. The associated research activities will occupy a significant of my personal research time in the next few years. In a nutshell, the description of the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems is at a very exciting juncture. On the one hand, there is significant societal demand to understand far better than we currently do the fate of organic matter in soils, and what is likely to happen to a range of chemicals associated with this organic matter (e.g., heavy metals, organic contaminants), in response to environmental change, including global warming. In this respect, there is plenty of evidence that current models, based on somewhat crude macroscopic assumptions, are not doing a satisfactory job. On the other hand, spectroscopic research on soils, in particular some synchrotron-based microfluorescence work done in my laboratory at Cornell (Jacobson et al., 2007) and more recent work we have done at SIMBIOS, has shown in the last couple of years that soils are far more heterogeneous at the microscopic scale than was known to be the case. Recent mathematical modeling, including some work on bioclogging done in my group, has also shown that the microscopic spatial complexity of soils could explain a wide range of observations (e.g., on the apparently limited bioavailability of contaminants) that cannot be described quantitatively by currently available models of terrestrial ecosystems. The convergence of these different trends, in the last 2-3 years, is suggesting a challenging, and extremely exciting research program, which I fully intend to spearhead. Part of the challenges arises from the fact that this program requires a pluridisciplinary perspective right from the start, because at the microscale, the physics, chemistry and microbiology of terrestrial ecosystems are intimately intertwined. The research also calls for detailed experimental work carried out in conjunction with advanced computational research. For these different reasons, and given the broad scope of my research until now, I feel particularly qualified to lead the research effort in this area. The experimental component will be a continuation of the X-ray computed tomography and synchrotron-based microfluorescence analyses we have carried out previously, extended to 3 dimensions and complemented by microscale assessments of microbial diversity. This will allow us to have a much better idea of the extent of microscopic spatial heterogeneity of soils, and of its influence on organic matter distribution and microbial colonization patterns. The quantitative information generated by this experimental program will be used as input for an ambitious program of simulation of terrestrial ecosystems at the microscopic scale, using a combination of lattice-Boltzmann, individual-based, and cellular automata models to describe fluid, solute transport in the pore space, as well as its colonization by microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, in particular). An additional step in our research will be to investigate the upscaling of microscopic processes to larger spatial scales, in order to determine how current macroscopic models need to be modified to account for emerging microscopic-scale features, and how they need to be integrated in very large scale models, such as those used to predict climate change. This research has the potential to revolutionize the practice of soil and water engineering. Because of the complexity of soils at a variety of spatial scales, and particularly at the microscopic scale, the research we are carrying out is calling for a fundamental rethinking of the theories and methods used to describe soil processes, and mandates groundbreaking changes in the way soils are sampled and analyzed.

4. Effect of observation scale on the description and management of environmental processes In the last decade, there has been mounting evidence that the scale at which one observes environmental processes, from molecular scales onward to the scales typically probed by satellite-based sensors, influences drastically the perception one has of these processes. This phenomenon is well-known to geographers, who have studied it for about 20 years under the name of “modifiable areal unit problem”. Ecologists are also very aware of the hierarchical structure of the complex systems they are trying to describe, and of the fact that this structure appears very differently at different points in the hierarchy. Environmental scientists and engineers, however, have been much slower to realize that the method they use to obtain information on a given system affects the nature of the information, even though the systems they deal with are among the most complex, both spatially and temporally, to be found anywhere. A sensor with a m3-size volume of influence sees things differently than one with a mm3 volume, for example, even if they are positioned at exactly the same point in a sediment. Brownfields that, at one spatial resolution, may exhibit significant “hotspots” with, e.g., heavy metal concentrations far exceeding regulatory standards, may exhibit elevated, but acceptable, contaminant levels when observed or characterized at a coarser spatial resolution. This issue therefore has very practical and significant consequences, which need to be studied in far more detail than they have been so far by scientists or engineers. The research we have conducted on that subject has dealt primarily with the effect of image and sensor resolution on the application of fractal geometry to the description of soils at microscopic, pore- or pedon scales, and to the characterization of some natural dentrites (moss agates) and geological structures. Recently, these efforts have been expanded to a much larger spatial domain, to deal with the computation of fractal landscape indexes associated with forest fragmentation patterns in Bolivia. The results of these various investigations have shown that fractal dimensions in most cases are strongly dependent on the spatial resolution of the data that are used for their evaluation. Therefore, progressively, our attention has turned to mathematical tools, like multifractal measures and wavelet decompositions, which have at least the potential of being resolution-independent. This possibility is being checked in a number of different contexts, using both 2-dimensional (satellite images, pictures of soil thin sections, electron micrographs) and 3-dimensional (computed tomography scans) data. The goal of this research is to identify mathematical techniques that allow a truly scale-independent description of processes, or an accurate depiction of how parameters of interest change with the spatial resolution of data. In either case, the results of the analysis will be useful to correctly evaluate the information contained in model input data and to apply new modeling paradigms.

5. Effect of computer round-off errors on environmental models As explained above, we are currently using different types of models in our research. As a side interest (but definitely not our main research focus), we want to make sure that the models we use are computationally robust. Mathematical models occupy an important place in the arsenal of techniques used in environmental engineering (as in most other branches of environmental sciences) to describe and predict processes occurring in the environment, at a number of scales. In some areas (for example, monitored natural attenuation in polluted subsurface environments), models are needed to extrapolate current data in the future and make educated predictions about how things are likely to evolve, and to decide what monitoring strategy is appropriate. Much debate has focused on the “validation” of these models, and more recently, on the equifinality of many of them. Until recently, comparatively little attention has been devoted to their verification (i.e., in part, on making sure that computers actually do what they are supposed to). Computer scientists have developed sophisticated methods to verify computer codes? and monitor the propagation of round-off errors, but almost none of that work has been implemented by environmental engineers. I firmly believe that, as it is currently the case in other disciplines, reliable computing is going to become rapidly a significant focus of research in environmental sciences and engineering. The revolution that I foresee in this area in the next few years will force environmental modelers to use available computational safeguards before they release their codes to the general public or use them for predictions that may influence engineering decisions or policy-making. In this context, work I did while on a mini-sabbatical at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris, showed that round-off errors can significantly degrade the predictions of soil water transport models. Research is continuing in our group on different approaches to guarantee that model results are not impaired by the limitations of computer arithmetic. Precise numerical methods developed in this research are systematically implemented in all computational efforts in our group. One output of this work, in the near future, will be a software package that we shall make widely available to the engineering community, to facilitate the adoption of safe/reliable computing techniques.

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    1. Baveye, P. Volume-accuracy relationship in soil moisture sampling (discussion), Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 103, 287-289, 1983.

    2. Baveye, P., and G. Sposito, The operational significance of the continuum hypothesis in the theory of water movement through soils and aquifers, Water Resources Research, 20, 521-530, 1984.

    3. Baveye, P. and G. Sposito, Reply to a comment on "The operational significance of the continuum hypothesis in the theory of water movement through soils and aquifers" by B. Berkovitz and J. Bensabat, Water Resources Research, 21, 1295-1296, 1985.

    4. Baveye, P., and G. Sposito, Macroscopic balance equations in soils and aquifers: the case of space- and time-dependent instrumental response, Water Resources Research, 21, 1116-1120, 1985.

    5. Baveye, P. and L. Charlet, Exchanger phase activity coefficients and analysis of the exchange properties of clays and soils, Agrochimica, 32, 73-80, 1988.

    6. Boast, C.W., R.L. Mulvaney, and P. Baveye, Evaluation of nitrogen-15 tracer techniques for direct measurement of denitrification in soil: I. Theory, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 52, 1317-1322, 1988.

    7. Hortensius, D., C.R. Meinardi and P. Baveye, ISO/TC 190 and the development of an international standardized approach to soil quality problems, Water International, 14(2), 89-90, 1989.

    8. Boast, C.W. and P. Baveye, Solution of the flow at a corner problem with a stagnation zone, Water Resources Research, 25(4), 757-763, 1989.9. Baveye, P. and A.J. Valocchi, An evaluation of mathematical models of the transport of biologically reacting solutes in saturated soils and aquifers, Water Resources Research, 25(6), 1413-1421, 1989.

    10. Baveye, P., C.W. Boast, and J.V. Giráldez, Use of referential coordinates in deforming soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 53(5), 1338-1343, 1989.

    11. Abdel-Sabour, M.F., M.A. Massoud, and P. Baveye, The effect of water movement on the transport of dicyandiamide, ammonium and urea in unsaturated soils, Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, 153, 245-247, 1990.

    12. Baveye, P. and A. Valocchi, Reply, Water Resources Research, 27(6), 1379-1380, 1991.

    13. Gannon, J., Y. Tan, P. Baveye and M. Alexander, Effect of sodium chloride on transport of bacteria in a saturated aquifer material, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57(9), 2497-2501, 1991.

    14. Vandevivere, P., and P. Baveye, Saturated hydraulic conductivity reduction caused by aerobic bacteria in sand columns, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 1-13, 1992.

    15. Vandevivere, P. and P. Baveye, Effect of bacterial extracellular polymers on the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sand columns, Applied Envir. Microbiol., 58(5), 1690-1698, 1992.

    16. Baveye, P., P. Vandevivere and D. de Lozada, Comment on "Biofilm growth and the related changes in the physical properties of a porous medium, 1, Experimental investigation" by S.W. Taylor and P.R. Jaffé, Water Resources Research, 28(5), 1481-1482, 1992.

    17. Vandevivere, P., and P. Baveye, Sampling method for the observation of microorganisms in unconsolidated porous media via scanning electron microscopy, Soil Science, 153(6), 482-486, 1992.

    18. Radulovich, R., P. Sollins, P. Baveye and E. Solórzano, Bypass water flow through unsaturated well-aggregated tropical soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 721-726, 1992.

    19. Vandevivere, P. and P. Baveye, Improved preservation of bacterial exopolymers for scanning electron microscopy, J. of Microscopy, 167, 323-330, 1992.

    20. Vandevivere, P. and P. Baveye, Relationship between transport of bacteria and their clogging efficiency in sand columns, Applied Envir. Microbiol., 58, 2523-2530, 1992.

    21. Sanchez de Lozada, D., P. Vandevivere, P. Baveye and S. Zinder, Reduction of the hydraulic conductivity of sand columns by Methanosarcina barkeri 227, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 325-333, 1994.

    22. Verburg, K., and P. Baveye, Hysteresis in the binary exchange of cations on 2:1 clay minerals: A critical review, Clays and Clay Minerals, 42(2), 207-220,1994.

    23. Yung, C.M., K. Verburg and P. Baveye, Group classification and symmetry reductions of the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation ut = (D(u)ux)x - K'(u)ux, International Journal of Nonlinear Mechanics, 29(3), 273-278, 1994.

    24. Tan, Y., J. Gannon, P. Baveye and M. Alexander, Transport of bacteria in an aquifer sand: Experiments and model simulations, Water Resources Research, 30(12), 3243-3252, 1994.

    25. McBride, M.B. and P. Baveye, Mobility of anion spin probes in hectorite gels: viscosity of surficial water, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59(2), 388-394 1995.

    26. Vandevivere, P., P. Baveye, D. Sanchez de Lozada, and P. DeLeo, Microbial clogging of saturated soils and aquifer materials: evaluation of mathematical models, Water Resources Research , 31, 2173-2180, 1995.

    27. Verburg, K., P. Baveye and M.B. McBride, Cation exchange hysteresis and dynamics of formation and breakdown of montmorillonite, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59, 1268-1273, 1995.

    28. Bielders, C.L., and P. Baveye, Vertical particle segregation in structural crusts: experimental observations and the role of shear strain, Geoderma, 67, 247-261, 1995.

    29. Bielders, C.L., and P. Baveye, Processes of structural crust formation on coarse textured soils, European Journal of Soil Science, 46, 221-232, 1995.

    30. Verburg, K., and P. Baveye, Effect of cation exchange hysteresis on a mixing procedure used in the study of clay suspensions, Clays and Clay Minerals, 43(5), 637-640, 1995.

    31. Bielders, C.L., P. Baveye, L.P. Wilding, L.R. Drees, and C. Valentin, Tillage-induced spatial distribution of surface crusts on a sandy Paleustult from Togo, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 843-855, 1996.

    32. Verburg, K., and P. Baveye, Cation exchange hysteresis scanning curves: mathematical description and interpretation, European Journal of Soil Science, 47, 345-356, 1996.

    33. Aguilar, J. F., J.R. Chaves, J.M. Arroyo, E. Solórzano, P. Baveye and R. Radulovich, Método de laboratorio para investigar flujos de agua y fertilizantes en suelos sin disturbar, Agronomía Costarricense 20(2), 105-112, 1996.

    34. Osswald, P., P. Baveye and J.-C. Block, Bacterial influence on partitioning rate during the biodegradation of styrene in a biphasic aqueous-organic system, Biodegradation, 7, 297-302, 1996.

    35. DeLeo, P., and P. Baveye, Enumeration and biomass estimation of bacteria in aquifer microcosm studies by flow cytometry, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(12),4580-4586, 1996.

    36. DeLeo, P., and P. Baveye, Factors affecting protozoan predation of bacteria clogging laboratory aquifer microcosms, Geomicrobiology Journal, 14, 127-149, 1997.

    37. Garnier, P., E. Perrier, R. Angulo-Jaramillo and P. Baveye, Numerical model of 3-dimensional anisotropic deformation and water flow in swelling soils, Soil Science, 162(2), 410, 1997.

    38. Garnier, P., M. Rieu, P. Boivin, M. Vauclin and P. Baveye, Determining the hydraulic properties of a swelling soil from a transient evaporation experiment, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61(6), 1555-1563, 1997.

    39. DeLeo, P.C., P. Baveye and W.C. Ghiorse, Use of confocal laser scanning microscopy on soil thin sections for improved characterization of microbial growth in unconsolidated soils and aquifer materials, Journal of Microbiological Methods, 30(3), 193-203, 1997.

    40. Baveye, P., P. Vandevivere, B.L. Hoyle, P.C. DeLeo and D. Sanchez de Lozada, Environmental impact and mechanisms of the biological clogging of saturated soils and aquifer materials, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 28(2), 123-191, 1998.

    41. Baveye, P., C.W. Boast, S. Ogawa, J.-Y. Parlange and T. Steenhuis, Influence of image resolution and thresholding on the apparent mass fractal characteristics of preferential flow patterns in field soils, Water Resources Research, 34(11), 2783-2796, 1998.

    42. Garnier, P., R. Angulo-Jaramillo, D.A. DiCarlo, T.W.J. Bauters, C. Darnault, T.S. Steenhuis, J.-Y. Parlange and P. Baveye, Dual-energy synchrotron X-ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration, Water Resources Research, 34(11), 2837-2842, 1998.

    43. Baveye, P., and C.W. Boast, Concepts of fractals in soils: Demixing apples and oranges, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62(5), 1469-1470, 1998.

    44. Baveye, P., and A. Dumestre, Comment on "Experimental study on the reduction of soil hydraulic conductivity by enhanced biomass growth" by Wu et al., Soil Science, 163(9), 759-761, 1998.

    45. Sánchez de Lozada, D., P. Baveye and S.J. Riha, Heat and moisture dynamics in raised field systems of the lake Titicaca region (Bolivia), Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 92(4), 251-265, 1998.

    46. Dumestre A, S. Sauvé, M.B. McBride, J. Berthelin, and P. Baveye, Copper speciation and microbial activity in long-term contaminated soils, Archive of Enviromental Contamination and Toxicology, 36(2), 124-131, 1999.

    47. Bladon, R., and P. Baveye, GIS has its limitations, Environmental Science and Technology, 33(3), 55A-55A, 1999.

    48. Baveye, P., M.B. McBride, D. Bouldin, T.D.Hinesly, M.S.A. Dahdoh, and M.F. Abdel-Sabour, Mass balance and distribution of sludge-borne trace elements in a silt loam soil following long-term applications of sewage sludge, The Science of the Total Environment, 227(1), 13-28, 1999.

    49. Ogawa, S., P. Baveye, C.W. Boast, J.-Y. Parlange and T. Steenhuis, Surface fractal characteristics of preferential flow patterns in field soils: Evaluation and effect of image processing, Geoderma, 88(3-4), 109-136, 1999. [This article has been re-printed on pages 19-46 of the book Fractals in Soil Science (Developments in Soil Science volume 27), edited by Y. Pachepsky, J.W. Crawford and W.J. Rawls, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ISBN: 9780444505309]

    50. Garnier, P., R. Angulo-Jaramillo, D.A. DiCarlo, T.W.J. Bauters, C.J.G. Darnault, T.S. Steenhuis, J.-Y. Parlange, and P. Baveye, Reply to Comment on "Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration" by Patricia Garnier et al., Water Resources Research, 35(11), 3589-3590, 1999.

    51. Dumestre, A., M.B. McBride, and P. Baveye, Use of EPR to monitor the distribution and availability of organic xenobiotics in model soil systems, Environmental Science and Technology, 34(7), 1259-1264, 2000.

    52. Baveye, P., The adult learner: A misinterpreted species? Academic Medicine, 75(3), 217-218, 2000.

    53. Baveye, P., To create generalists, teach students how to learn by themselves, Nature, 404(6776), 329-329, 2000. [This article was kindly posted on Internet by the Flat Rock Forests Unitholder Organisation, in New Zealand. The homepage URL (last accessed: April 10, 2006) is:]

    54. Baveye, P., Comment on “In-situ bioremediation is a viable option for denitrification of Chalk groundwaters” by J.A.Tompkins, S.R. Smith, E. Cartmell & H.S. Weater, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 34(4), 411-412, 2001.

    55. Hohnstock-Ashe, A.M., S.M. Plummer, R.M. Yager, P. Baveye and E.L. Madsen, Further biogeochemical characterization of a thrichloroethene-contaminated fractured dolomite aquifer: Geochemical and microbial controls on in situ reductive dechlorination, Environmental Science and Technology, 35 (22), 4449-4456, 2001.

    56. Baveye, P., Comment on “Evaluation of biofilm image thresholding methods” by Yang et al., Water Research, 36(3), 805-806, 2002.

    57. Baveye, P., H. Rogasik, O. Wendroth, I. Onasch, and J.W. Crawford, Effect of sampling volume on the measurement of soil physical properties: Simulation with X-ray tomography data, Measurement Science and Technology, 13, 775-784, 2002.

    58. Yu, C., S.Y. Ahn, P.W.C.N. Lee, and P.C. Baveye. The soil particles distributions and fractal dimension. J. of the Korean Geotechnical Society, 18(6), 25-32, 2002. [in Korean, abstract in English]

    59. Baveye, P., Comment on “Modelling soil variation: Past, present and future” by Heuvelink and Webster, Geoderma 109(3-4), 289-293, 2002.

    60. McBride, M.B., and P. Baveye, Diffuse double-layer models, long-range forces, and ordering in clay colloids, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1207-1217, 2002.

    61. Darnault, C.J.G., and P. Baveye, Fate of environmental pollutants: A bibliographical compilation, Water Environment Research, 2002.

    62. Ogawa, S., P. Baveye, J.-Y. Parlange, and T.S. Steenhuis, Preferential flow in the field soils, Forma, 17, 31-53, 2002.

    63. Darnault, C.J.G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K. Oveson, T.S. Steenhuis, J.-Y.Parlange, M. Jenkins, W.C. Ghiorse, and P. Baveye. Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in the subsurface environment, Water Environment Research, 75 (2): 113-120, 2003.

    64. Dathe, A., and P. Baveye, Dependence of the surface fractal dimension of soil pores on image resolution, European Journal of Soil Science, 54. 453-466, 2003.

    65. Belluck, D.A., S.L. Benjamin, P. Baveye, J. Sampson, B. Johnson, and M. Vogel, Widespread arsenic contamination of soils in residential areas and public spaces: An emerging regulatory or medical crisis? International Journal of Toxicology, 22(2), 109-128, 2003.

    66. McBride, M.B., and P. Baveye, Reply to comment on “Diffuse double-layer models, long- range forces, and ordering in clay colloids”, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67(6), 1961-1964, 2003.

    67. Qureshi, S., B.K. Richards, A.G. Hay, M.B. McBride, P. Baveye, C.C. Tsai, and T.S. Steenhuis, Effect of microbial activity on trace metals released from sewage sludge, Environmental Science and Technology, 37 (15), 3361-3366, 2003.

    68. Qureshi, S., B.K. Richards, M.B. McBride, P. Baveye and T.S. Steenhuis, Biological release and leaching of trace elements from metalliferous peat affected by temperature, Journal of Environmental Quality, 32 (6), 2067-2075, 2003.

    69. Baveye, P., Refocusing the SDL debate, Family Medicine, 35 (6), 445-446, 2003.

    70. Baveye, P., Author's response to self directed learning letters, Family Medicine, 36 (2), 84-84, 2004.

    71. Darnault, C.J.G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K. Oveson, M. Jenkins, and W.C. Ghiorse, T.S. Steenhuis, J.-Y. Parlange, and P. Baveye,. Preferential pathways and transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum oocysts through the vadose zone: Experiments and modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 3, 262-270, 2004.

    72. Crist, J.T., J.F. McCarthy, Y. Zevi, P. Baveye, J.A. Throop, and T.S. Steenhuis, Pore-scale colloid transport and retention in partly saturated porous media, Vadose Zone Journal, 3, 444-450, 2004.

    73. Jacobson AR, and P. Baveye, Comment on "critical evaluation of desorption phenomena of heavy metals from natural sediments", Environmental Science and Technology, 38 (17), 4701-4702, 2004

    74. Qureshi, S., B.K. Richards, T.S. Steenhuis, M.B. McBride, P. Baveye, and S. Dousset, Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge, Environmental Pollution 132 (1), 61-71, 2004

    75. Seki, K., M. Thullner, and P. Baveye, Nutrient uptake kinetics of filamentous microorganisms: Comparison of cubic, exponential, and Monod models, Annals of Microbiology, 54(2), 181-188, 2004

    76. Baveye, P., The emergence of a new kind of relativism in environmental modelling: a commentary, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 460 (2047), 2141-2146, 2004.

    77. Spagnuolo, M., C.E. Martínez, A.R. Jacobson, P. Baveye, M.B. McBride, and J. Newton, Coprecipitation of trace metals during the synthesis of hectorite. Applied Clay Science, 27, 129-140, 2004.

    78. Spagnuolo, M., P. Baveye, A. Jacobson, M.D.R. Pizzigallo, and P. Ruggiero, Interactions of neutral and cationic spin probes with a smectite and a smectite-humic acid complex. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13(11b), 1344-1349, 2004.

    79. Baveye, P. Learning revolution needed. The Futurist, 39(4), 67-67, 2005.

    80. Jacobson, A.R., McBride, M.B., Baveye, P. and Steenhuis, T.S., The sorption of thallium and silver at trace levels to soils. Air, Water and Soil Pollution, 160 (1-4), 41-54, 2005.

    81. Jacobson, A.R., Klitzke, S., McBride, M.B., Baveye, P. and Steenhuis, T.S., The desorption of thallium and silver from soil. The Science of the Total Environment, 345(1-3), 191-205, 2005.

    82. Jacobson, A.R., Martínez, C.E., Spagnuolo, M., McBride, M.B. and Baveye, P., Reduction of silver solubility by humic acid and thiol ligands during acanthite (?-Ag2S) dissolution. Environmental Pollution, 135 (1), 1-9, 2005.

    83. Baveye, P., Comment on “Characterization of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling” by S. Barbizzi et al., Environmental Pollution, 135 (2), 341-342, 2005.

    84. Jacobson, A.R., Dousset, S., Guichard, N., Baveye, P. and Andreux, F., Diuron movement through vineyard soils contaminated with copper. Environmental Pollution, 138, 341-342, 2005.

    85. Spagnuolo, M., A.R. Jacobson, and P. Baveye, EPR analysis of the distribution of a hydrophobic spin probe in suspensions of humic acids, hectorite, and AlOH-humate-hectorite complexes, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(10), 2435-2444, 2005.

    86. Pendleton, D.E., A. Dathe, and P. Baveye, Influence of image resolution and evaluation algorithm on estimates of the lacunarity of porous media, Physical Review E, 72 (4), Art. No. 0413062005, 2005.

    87. Steenhuis, T.S., J. F. McCarthy, J. T. Crist, Y. Zevi, P.C. Baveye, J.A. Throop, R.L. Fehrman, A. Dathe, and B.K. Richards, Reply to the Comments of J. Wan and T. K. Tokunaga on “Pore-scale visualization of colloid transport and retention in partly saturated porous media”, Vadose Zone Journal, 4, 957-958, 2005.

    88. Lembo, A.J., Jr., M. Young Lew, M. Laba, and P. Baveye, Use of spatial SQL to assess the practical significance of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Computers and Geosciences, 32(2), 270-274, 2006.

    89. Boast, C.W., and P. Baveye, Practical solution to an indeterminacy problem affecting classical iterative image thresholding algorithms, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 2006, 20(1), 1-14.

    90. Baveye, P., Comment on “Optimal In-Situ Bioremediation Design by Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing” by Horng-Jer Shieh and Richard C. Peralta, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management , 131(1), 127-127, 2006.

    91. Baveye, P., Comment on “Soil structure and management: A review” by C.J. Bronick and R. Lal, Geoderma, 134 (1-2), 231-232,2006.

    92. Dumestre, A., M. Spagnuolo, R. Bladon, J. Berthelin, and P. Baveye, EPR monitoring of the bioavailability of an organic xenobiotic (4-hydroxy-TEMPO) in model clay suspensions and pastes, Environmental Pollution, 143 (1), 73-80, 2006.

    93. Baveye, P., A.R. Jacobson, S.E. Allaire, J. Tandarich, and R. Bryant, Whither goes soil science in the US and Canada? Survey results and analysis, Soil Science, 171(7), 501-518, 2006.

    94. Sanchez de Lozada, D., P. Baveye, R.F. Lucey, R. Mamani, and W. Fernandez, Potato yields in raised field systems of the lake Titicaca region (Bolivia), Scientia Agricola, 63(5), 444-452, 2006

    95. Kojima, N., M. Laba, X.M. Velez-Liendo, A.V. Bradley, A.C. Millington, and P. Baveye, Causes of the apparent scale independence of fractal indexes associated with forest fragmentation in Bolivia, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 61, 84-94, 2006.

    96. Baveye, P., A future for soil science, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 61(5), 148A-151A, 2006. [reprinted with permission in Profile, the Newsletter of the Australian Society of Soil Science, Issue 148, pp. 22-25, 2007].

    97. Baveye, P., A.R. Jacobson, S.E. Allaire, J. Tandarich, and R. Bryant, Reply to a comment on “Whither goes soil science in the US and Canada? Survey results and analysis” by A. Hartemink, Soil Science, 172(2), 168-171, 2007.

    98. Laba, M., S. Smith, P. Sullivan, and P. Baveye, Influence of wavelet type on the classification of marsh vegetation from satellite imagery using a combination of wavelet texture and statistical component analyses, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 33(4), 260-265, 2007.

    99. Jacobson, A.R, S. Dousset, F. Andreux, and P.C. Baveye, Electron microprobe and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the heterogeneous distribution of copper in high-copper vineyard soils, Environmental Science and Technology, 41(18), 6350-6356, 2007.

    100. Dousset, S., D. Landry, A. Jacobson, P. Baveye, and F. Andreux, Influence of grass cover on the leaching of herbicides in Burgundy vineyards, Environmental Research Journal, 1(4), 127-154, 2007.

    101. Baveye, P. Soils and runaway climate change. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 62(6), 139A-143A, 2007 [to be translated and reprinted with permission in the Bulletin of the Brazilian Society of Soil Science, 2007] [This article was awarded the Soil and Water Conservation Society Editor’s Choice Award in 2008. The Editor’s Choice Award is given annually to recognize the contribution of an author or group of authors for their notable article appearing in the front (A) section of the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation in the previous calendar year.]

    102. Dousset, S. A.R. Jacobson, J.-B. Dessogne, N. Guichard, P.C. Baveye and F. Andreux, Facilitated transport of diuron and glyphosate in high copper vineyard soils, Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 8056-8061, 2007.

    103. Baveye, P., and A. Jacobson, Soil science and the “age of money” (Guest editorial), Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 187, 1-4, 2008.

    104. Baveye, P. Discussion of “Self-Managed Learning Model for Civil Engineering Continuing Training” by Stephen T. Muensch, Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education & Practice, 134(1), 138-138, 2008.

    105. Laba, M., R. Downs, S. Smith, S. Welsh, C. Neider, S. White, M. Richmond, W.D. Philpot, and P. Baveye, Mapping invasive wetland plants in the Hudson river national estuarine research reserve using Quickbird satellite imagery, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 112(1), 286-300, 2008.

    106. Baveye, P., L. Charlet, K.P. Georgakakos, and G. Syme, Editorial: Maintaining excellence with speedier article publication and a broader scope, Journal of Hydrology, 348(1-2), v-vi, 2008.

    107. Baveye, P.C., and M. Laba, Aggregation and toxicology of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(4), A152-A152, 2008.

    108. Thullner, M., and P. Baveye, Computational pore network modeling of the influence of biofilm permeability on bioclogging in porous media, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 99(6), 1337-1351, 2008.

    109. Harris, R., and P.C. Baveye, Editorial: Water on the table: Sigma Xi’s Year of Water affords unique opportunities to share hydrological information, Journal of Hydrology, 354(1-4), v-vii, 2008.

    110. Baveye, P., L. Charlet, and K.P. Georgakakos, and G. Syme, Editorial: Ensuring that reviewers’ time and efforts are used efficiently, Journal of Hydrology, 365(1-2), 1-3, 2009.

    111. French, R.A., A.R. Jacobson, B. Kim, S.L. Isley, R.L. Penn, and P.C. Baveye, Influence of ionic strength, pH, and cation valence on aggregation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Environmental Science and Technology, 43(5), 1354–1359, 2009.

    112. Baveye, P.C., Comment on “Conservation of protists: Is it needed at all?” by Cotterill et al., Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(3), 503-505, 2009.

    113. Jacobson, A.R., R. Militello and P.C. Baveye, Development of computer-assisted virtual field trips to support pluridisciplinary learning, Computers and Education, 52(3), 571-580, 2009.

    114. Baveye, P.C. and A.R. Jacobson, Comment on "A soil science renaissance" by A.E. Hartemink and A. McBratney, Geoderma, 151, 126-127, 2009.

    115. Wu, C.-Y., A.R. Jacobson, M. Laba, and P.C. Baveye, Surface roughness and near-infrared reflectance sensing of soils, Geoderma, 152(1-2), 171-180, 2009.

    116. Wu, C.-Y., A.R. Jacobson, M. Laba, and P.C. Baveye, Alleviating moisture content effects on the near-infrared diffuse-reflectance sensing of soils, Soil Science, 174(8), 456-465, 2009.

    117. Baveye, P.C., To sequence or not to sequence the whole-soil metagenome?, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7(10), 756, 2009.

    118. Baveye, P.C., Sticker shock and looming tsunami: The high cost of academic serials in perspective, Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 41(2), 191-215, 2010.

    119. Baveye, P.C., Comment on “The role of scaling laws in upscaling” by B.D. Wood, Advances in Water Resources, 33, 123–124, 2010.

    120. Wu, C.-Y., A.R. Jacobson, M. Laba, B. Kim and P.C. Baveye, Surrogate calibrations and the diffuse-reflectance near-infrared sensing of trace metal content in soils, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2010, in press.

    121. Baveye, P.C., Comment on “Comparison of bioclogging effects in saturated porous media within one- and two-dimensional flow systems” by M. Thullner, Ecological Engineering, in press, 2010.

    122. Laba, M., B. Blair, R. Downs, W. Philpot, S. Smith, P. Sullivan, and P.C. Baveye, Use of Texture and Edge-Preserving Smoothing to Map Invasive Wetland Plants in the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve with Ikonos Satellite Imagery, Remote Sensing of Environment, 2010, in press.

    123. Baveye, P.C., and P. Griffiths, Peer review – beyond the call of duty? International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2010, in press.

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